Egypt: The Country Profile for Market and Social Researchers

Quick Facts about Egypt for a market and social researcher

Do you have projects in market or social research in Egypt? If your answer is yes, then you have come to the right place. AfriQSense specializes in fieldwork and data analysis throughout Africa. Contact Us for more details

Egypt is a critical market for research because it is North Africa’s largest economy. Furthermore, the country is one of the Middle East’s larger economies thanks to its large population. Therefore, this makes Egypt a key source of marketing and business insights.

Before we do anything more it’s a good idea to share with you quick facts about Egypt. This is a good starting step for our coming long-term relationship.

For starters, do you know the country’s official name is the Arab Republic of Egypt? Additionally, do you know Egypt is the home to the world’s third-lowest point? Read Below to learn about this world’s second oldest nation.

The Geography of Egypt

Egypt lies in the Sahara Desert. Consequently, only 35,000 km2 equal to 3.5% of the total land area is cultivated. This also is the area that is permanently settled.  Surprisingly, about 95% of Egyptians live along the banks of the Nile and in the Nile Delta. This is key in planning for a project in market and social research in Egypt.

Area, Location, Position and Capital City

The country has an area measuring 1,010,408 square kilometers or 390,121 square miles. Therefore, Egypt is the world’s 29th largest. Additionally, it is Africa’s 12th  and North Africa’s 3rd largest country after Algeria, and Libya. This is if Mauritania is classified as part of West Africa and not in the North African sub-region.

This ancient nation lies between latitudes 22 degrees and 32 degrees north of the Equator and longitudes 25 and 35 degrees east of the Prime Meridian. In addition, The country has a shoreline along the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

Its capital city is Cairo. Furthermore, Cairo is Africa’s most populous city, surpassing other major and populous cities. Therefore, Egypt’s capital city is more populous than Nigeria’s Lagos, Ethiopian Addis Ababa, and Kenya’s Nairobi.

Official Language

The country’s official language is Arabic and English, while Egyptian Arabic is the country’s national language. Therefore, for projects, it’s important to ensure the data gathering tools are translated into Egyptian Arabic.

Highest and Lowest Points

Egypt’s highest point is Mount Sinai which stands at an altitude of 2,885 meters or 9,465 feet above sea level. On the other hand, Its lowest level is the Qattara Depression. In addition, the Qattara Depression is Africa’s second-lowest after Djibouti’s Lake Assal. The Qattara Depression sits 133 meters or 436 feet below sea level.

Do you know Lake Assal, is the second-lowest on earth after the Dead Sea? This Africa’s lowest point sits at an altitude of 155 meters or 509 feet below sea level.

Please note that the Dead Sea in the Middle East is the world’s lowest at an elevation of  430.5 meters (1,412 ft) below sea level. Furthermore, the Sea of Galilee at an altitude of 214.66 meters or 704.3 feet below sea level is also one of the world’s lowest points. However, its elevation is not constant.

History of Egypt

Ancient Egypt

Egypt has one of the world’s greatest histories which go back to the 6th and 4th millennia; this was long Before the Christ Era (BCE). Egypt is one of the world’s five Cradles for Civilization together with Mesopotamia in the Middle East, the Indus River in India, and North China’s Plain.

Early Egypt’s civilizations were centers of innovation in agriculture, writing, religion, organized politics, science, and technology. These led to the establishment of central governments as well as urbanization among other developments. These historical achievements have undisputed evidence which includes:

  1. Giza Necropolis
  2. Great Sphinx
  3. Ruins which includes Memphis, Thebes, and Karnak
  4. The Valley of Kings and Queens
  5. Old cities like Alexandria

Therefore Egypt’s civilization is one of the world’s oldest. Consequently, many civilizations adopted or were assimilated by Egypt’s culture, and these include:

  • Greeks, Persians, Romans, Arabs, Turkey’s Ottoman Empire, Ethiopia and Nubians.

Colonial Egypt

The country was a former British Colony. It gained its independence in 1922. However, this was sham independence granting the monarchs some leeway and hence, the king was a puppet of the colonial masters. While the real power resided in the British military who controlled and continued to occupy the country.

Post Colonial Egypt

In 1952 the country underwent a revolution led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Consequently, British soldiers who had remained in the country even after independence in 1922 were expelled. Additionally, the monarch was overthrown.

Egypt Today


Egypt’s main religion is Islam, but do you know that at one point, Egypt was a center of Christianity. The Muslim conquest of North Africa from  647 AD, drove the Christians away. Consequently, the country is a powerhouse in the Muslim world.

Strategic Location

Due to its strategic location, Egypt has been colonized by many powers. The country has been under Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantine, Arabs, Ottomans, and finally British.

This ancient country has been playing a key role in geopolitics both in the world and in the region. It is a founder member of:

  • United Nations
  • Non-Alignment Movement
  • Arab League
  • Africa Union
  • Organizations of Islamic Corporation

Besides, Egypt is a transcontinental country, the only one in Africa as its spans two continents, Africa and Asia. The Suez Canal, which links the Mediterranean and the Red Sea is a major transport corridor and this has resulted in Egypt becoming a North Africa and the Middle East regional power.

Growing Population and Economic Growth

The country is one of the most populous nations in Africa with a population of about 95 million people.

Furthermore, the country is one of the world’s middle power. The country’s economy is one the most diversified in both Africa and the Middle East and is expected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. Since 2016, Egypt has been the second-largest economy in Africa after overtaking South Africa. Africa’s largest economy is Nigeria, while South Africa is the third-largest. Please note that Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country. Read more about Nigeria here.

Egypt Administrative Divisions and Population Data

For anyone with a project in market and social research in Egypt project, administrative divisions and population data are of key importance. This is because both are used as the basis of any sampling

Administrative Divisions of Egypt

Egypt has a three-layer hierarchy administrative system. However, at times there is a further subdivision that creates the fourth layer.

The Country’s first-tier level is governorates. There are 27 governorates which include two city governorates. These are Alexandria and Cairo. The city governorates are further divided into districts.

The non-urban governorates totaling 25 are divided into regions known as Markaz in the plural. The Markaz are further divided into districts known locally as aḥya. Finally, the districts are divided into villages known locally as Qura.

Population and Demography of Egypt


Egypt according to the United Nations 2020 mid-year estimates had a population of 102,334,404. Therefore, this North African country is home to 1.31% of the entire earth’s population. It is the world’s 14th most populous country. Additionally, it is Africa’s 3rd most populous after Nigeria and Ethiopia.

Please note that we can help in sampling for market and social research projects in Egypt. Feel Free to contact us

Density, Urbanization and Median Age

With a total area of is 995,450 Km2 or 384,345 square miles, the country has a population density of 103 persons per square kilometers or 266 people per square mile.

As of 2020, 44,041,052 lived in urban areas; this is equal to 43.0 %.

Most of the country’s population is below 25 years old with a median age of 24.6 years

Population Distribution

#Governorate NameTotal AreaPopulation (2016)Inhabited AreaPercentage of Inhabited AreaRuralUrbanPercentage of  Urban
 City Governorates       
1Alexandria 2,300.004,812,1861,675.5072.856,6984,755,48898.8
 Non-City Governorates       
4Beni Suef10,954.002,856,8121,369.4112.52,193,871662,94123.2
11Kafr El Sheikh3,466.693,172,7533,466.691002,441,246731,50723.1
16New Valley440,098.00225,4161,082.240.2117,180108,23648
17North Sinai28,992.00434,7812,100.847.2173,095261,68660.2
18Port Said1,344.96666,5991,320.6898.20666,599100
21Red Sea119,099.13345,77571.130.117,062328,71395.1
24South Sinai31,272.00167,42616,791.0053.781,92485,50251.1
Data Source: Egypt’s Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPM)

Do you have any projects for marketing and social research in Egypt? Feel free to contact us for fieldwork and data management.